Pro-government forces have intensified their assault on the rebel-held suburbs of the Syrian capital Damascus, a day after rebels beat back an attempted Government advance, killing several soldiers.
The fighting threw into sharp relief the fragility of a so-called "cease-fire" that was supposed to bring calm to the besieged enclave inhabited by some 400,000 people.
Opposition media activist Anas al-Dimashqi said Government air raids and artillery fire have reached a rate of 60 to 70 strikes per day on areas held by the Faylaq al-Rahman rebel faction, which was not party to the cease-fire brokered by Egypt and Russia and signed in Cairo on July 22.
Air strikes on the Ein Terma and Zamalka towns in Ghouta blasted debris hundreds of feet into the air, as seen in footage posted by the Ghouta Media Center on social media.
The opposition-affiliated centre said one civilian was killed and several others wounded.
But mortars also fell on Douma, al-Rayhan and Housh al-Douahira, towns and villages held by the Islam Army faction, which is party to the cease-fire, according to al-Dimashqi and the Britain-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights monitoring group.
The Observatory said rebels killed nine soldiers and captured at least one fighting for the Syrian army's vaunted 4th Division, in battle last Tuesday.