The Iraqi military overnight called on Iraqis fighting for ISIS in Mosul to surrender amid a wide-scale operation to retake the militant-held city, where up to 6,000 fighters are believed to be preparing for a climactic battle.
Here is a look at the key developments on the third day of the Mosul offensive:
Fighting outside nearby town
Iraqi troops are now around one kilometre away from Hamdaniyah, a historically Christian town also known as Bakhdida, to the east of Mosul.
Over the past day, ISIS sent 12 car bombs, all of which were blown up before reaching their targets, and Iraqi troops suffered a small number of casualties from the mortar rounds, an officer said on condition of anonymity because he was not authorized to talk to reporters.
To the north, airstrikes pounded Bashiqa as Kurdish forces fired mortar rounds from an area overlooking the ISIS-held town.
Iraqis flee to Syria
Save the Children said 5,000 people have fled to a refugee camp in northeastern Syria from the Mosul area in the last 10 days, with another thousand waiting to enter at the border.
The group said the squalid camp has just 16 latrines shared by more than 9,000 people, many of whom only have access to dirty, untreated water.
UN humanitarian chief Stephen O'Brien said no large-scale displacement of civilians has been reported since the operation began.
But he said the UN anticipates "a displacement wave of some 200,000 people over the coming weeks, with up to one million displaced in the course of the operation in a worst-case scenario."
US deploys Apaches
The US-led coalition is providing airstrikes in support of the operation, and more than 100 American soldiers are embedded with Iraqi forces, with hundreds more serving in a support role.
Maj. Gen. Gary Volesky, the top commander of US land forces in Iraq, said US Army Apache attack helicopters are striking ISIS targets in support of the operation.
The deployment of US attack helicopter crews brings added risk for American troops.
Russia fears flight of militants
The chief of the Russian military's General Staff said it has been monitoring the Mosul operation and is concerned that militants might escape to Syria, where Russia has been carrying out airstrikes for more than a year in support of President Bashar Assad's forces.
"We hope that our partners from the international coalition realize what could be the consequences of large groups of ISIS fighters roaming the Mideast region," Gen. Valery Gerasimov said.