'I've never hated myself more in my life' - Revenge porn law, does it really protect the victim?

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Revenge porn, the sharing of someone's intimate image without consent, is now illegal, but is the law really structured to deal with the problem? Anna Whyte explores the issue as part of the Massey University Master of Journalism.

This article contains content that some readers may find distressing. 

Charlotte

The new law addresses non-physical forms of abuse or 'coercive control'. Domestic violence support groups here are keeping a close eye on the way the law is being applied there.

Source: 1 NEWS

It was Charlotte's first love, but it resulted in her leaving school and thinking about ending her own life.

"I fell completely head over heels with this guy. He would do anything for me and would always send me gifts. He asked for those pictures but never pressured me."

She sent all her "dignity" to the person she trusted. "Things went quiet with us over the next couple of months. I really just assumed it was over."

She began seeing another person from her own town but it didn't last as she wanted to concentrate on school.

However, a few weeks later it all went downhill.

Charlotte was invited into a group chat online, which contained a collection of peers from her school, and both her long-distance ex-partner and the boy from the town she was briefly involved with.

"The first thing that appeared was this girl saying that this was going to destroy me and that I'm going to regret everything I've ever done."

Charlotte couldn't comprehend what was happening, she was quiet at school, she never got on the wrong side of others, she blended in. That didn’t matter now. "I was so, so stupid to put my face in [the pictures]."

Charlotte likened the feeling to that of a death of a loved-one. "I remember sitting at my desk and bursting into tears, my heart sank, I couldn't tell my parents, I was too ashamed of what I had done. I've never hated myself more in my life than in that minute. Suicide definitely crossed my mind."

Charlotte went to school the next day. Her peers laughed at her openly. She went to the school counsellor and told them what happened. "She called in my parents and that was the last day I ever set foot in that school."

Charlotte thought about 10,000 people would have seen the image despite police involvement as she was underage at the time. "I still think this image is out there. I know that the police did what they could to really try to get all copies removed."

Charlotte says offenders need to be aware their actions are not acceptable. "A picture like that is so personal and only made to be for the receiver. It hurts more lives than just the victim."

What is revenge porn?

Revenge porn, or more fittingly image-based sexual exploitation, begins when a consensually taken image is sent freely to another person. Usually this is as far as it gets with the trusted partner disposing of, or keeping the image only for their own eyes. But that is not always the case.

Seven Sharp decided to send Tim Wilson along for a lesson.

Source: 1 NEWS

Occasionally, when a relationship breaks up or dissolves a partner may choose to share that intimate image in a plight of emotional abuse, to humiliate or degrade the victim by releasing the image online, or sending it to the victim's family, friends or workplaces.

How big is the issue?

A 2017 study led by Australian academic Dr Nicola Henry of RMIT surveyed 4,200 people between 16 and 49-years, and showed the enormous extent of revenge porn. A massive one in five Australians experienced that kind of image-based abuse.

Dr Henry's earlier 2015 study also found men and women were equally as likely to report someone had posted or distributed a nude or sexual image of them without their permission. People in the LGBTQI+ community were more likely to experience image based abuse, with a third of people who were gay, lesbian or bisexual reporting their image had been shared.

"Image-based abuse has emerged so rapidly as an issue that inevitably our laws and policies are struggling to catch up," Dr Henry told RMIT University. "This isn't just about 'revenge porn' - images are being used to control, abuse and humiliate people in ways that go well beyond the 'relationship gone sour' scenario."

Despite the even numbers of male and female victims, offenders were more likely to be male, but men were more also likely to voluntarily share nude or sexualised images of themselves.

Dr Henry says women were more likely to fear for their safety because of image-based abuse. The issue of rising levels of revenge porn was also indicated with younger people aged 16 to 29-years-old at a higher risk.

Kate

Kate (not her real name) was only 14 when photos of her were shared online. She'd met a man online and thought it was a trusting relationship. 

"I was easily brainwashed into doing whatever he wanted, because I thought that was what love was." That included sending intimate images of herself. 

After a while, Kate decided she didn't want to continue seeing him as she knew the age difference made it "wrong". But what happened next was something no person, let alone a child should go through. He threatened to post those images on Facebook if she broke up with him, and when Kate ended the relationship he posted them publicly, along with Kate's full name. 

It was a calculated move. He'd threatened to post it and went through with it once he didn't get what he wanted.

Kate, already a vulnerable teen in the midst of hormone-fuelled puberty, was hit hard. "I felt so ashamed and guilty. I didn't want to tell my parents because I thought it was my fault. I missed a lot of school due to my once under control mental health rapidly declining to the point where I tried to commit suicide."

He even let Kate know what he had done by sending her the evidence, like a victory trophy. About 100 people saw Kate's image. "I told him I would do anything he wanted if he took them down," she says. "I was desperate to avoid telling my parents." He wouldn't take it down, so Kate told her parents, who in turn went to the police.

Kate says the police were professional, but the experience was "very invasive and traumatic". At the time, she didn't think her interests were protected as a victim.

"Many of our laws regarding sexual crimes are inadequate for both sexes. I don't think it's enough to deter people from doing it. I think my situation had a better outcome only because it was classed as child pornography."

Investigations

The managing director of private investigators Arbeth & Co, Julia Hartley Moore says she has two cases on the go, with "one in Italy, would you believe".  

"Revenge porn is the ultimate collision between our right to privacy and social media. Think of it like this, would you be upset if your neighbours saw photos of you naked?"

Ms Moore says catching offenders of revenge porn is "difficult and time-consuming. But can be done if you have the money and resources. Which is why law enforcement agencies don't often get results."

Senior investigator and director of The Investigators Daniel Toresen says about 30 per cent of its work now has a cybercrime component to it, with revenge porn a growing area. 

"There are a few cases that stand out that I've worked on regarding revenge porn and everyone has very traumatic results for the victim. One was a high-profile overseas New Zealander with a new family that had her promotion to a senior government role jeopardised by the harassment. 

"The other was a New Zealand woman stalked and harassed by an ex, with posts of an explicit nature made. Charges were laid but withdrawn as she didn’t want to go through the court process due to extreme embarrassment."

Mr Toresen says one of his clients is actually an offender. "She posted on a revenge porn site shaming an adulteress and instantly regretted her actions and has been unable to remove the content. A lot of this offending happens in the heat of the moment and it's not until later that it is discovered the internet has a long, long memory." Mr Toresen believes harmful digital communications is an evolving area with the boundaries still being defined. 

"There have been jail terms imposed for this type of crime and in my view this is the only way to deter people from this type of offending."

Interestingly, Mr Toresen says that although there are untraceable ways to commit revenge porn, in his experience it is usually done by inexperienced computer users who are easily identified. 

"The investigations are relatively straight-forward in my experience."

The law

There was little a victim of revenge porn could do before 2015 in New Zealand. If an offender threatened to release the images, the avenues around blackmail could be explored, or civil action could be taken against the offender, but the consent given in the initial instance was an obstacle for victims. 

Source: istock.com

It wasn't until the Harmful Digital Communication Act (HDCA) came into force in July, 2015 that the law finally began to catch up with the range of harmful communications now possible with modern technology. The purpose of this Act was to "deter, prevent, and mitigate harm caused to individuals by digital communications; and provide victims of harmful digital communications with a quick and efficient means of redress".

The principles of the HDCA which encompass revenge porn include:

Principle 3 - A digital communication should not be grossly offensive to a reasonable person in the position of the affected individual.
Principle 4 - A digital communication should not be indecent or obscene.
Principle 5 - A digital communication should not be used to harass an individual.
Principle 9 - A digital communication should not incite or encourage an individual to commit suicide.

Online safety organisation Netsafe became the first point of call to attempt to reach a settlement between the complainants and the content authors (the victims and the offenders).

As the Government’s 'approved agency' under the HDCA it can investigate serious complaints and advise victims. Netsafe also liaises with websites and internet service providers to take down or moderate harmful content. The court can then order a range of remedies to harmful communications including orders to take down material, orders to release the identity of the source of an anonymous communication and orders for an apology. Anyone found guilty can face up to two years in prison or be fined up to $50,000.

Netsafe CEO Martin Cocker describes the HDCA as an "innovative piece of legislation". According to the Ministry of Justice, as of July 27, 2017, 55 cases resulted in a conviction and a serious sentencing, with 14 of those ending in imprisonment, four with home detention, 29 with community sentences and five with fines.

Forty-nine males and seven females were convicted or discharged without conviction, with 54 of them aged between 18 and 30-years-old.

Mr Cocker says the majority of the criminal prosecutions in its first 18 months were cases of non-consensual sharing of intimate images.

Lawyer Rick Shera specialises in information technology and privacy law and is also the chair of Netsafe. He says about 80-90 per cent of revenge porn cases are carried out by an offender or an alleged offender that is known to the victim.

He says going through an independent outlet like Netsafe is important to victims. "Netsafe's role is to try achieve a resolution through persuasion and mediation".

Mr Shera says most revenge porn offenders do it “in the heat of the moment”.

"It's done as a result of some business break up or relationship break up. It's not really done by people as a concerted effort to attack, and if it was there are basic policing methods… such as tracking them down in real life if they're in NZ or using Interpol or its forces to track [the offender] down." He says the HDCA is designed to attack the most obvious cases where something can be done about it quickly.

National Party justice spokesperson Amy Adams was Minister for Justice at the end of 2014 when the Act had passed its first reading. It is a piece of legislation she is really proud of. "It's been working well to weed out and punish the worst offenders," she says. "One of the most serious cases we saw involved a man who was jailed for sending half-naked photos of his ex-girlfriend to a shared work email address."

Ms Adams says the then Government tried to "future proof" the HDCA as much as it could, "but the speed at which technology changes means the new Government will need to keep up to speed with the latest developments and ensure the Act continues to be fit for purpose". 

Martin Cocker says there are new challenges when it came to rapid emerging technology but he expects laws in New Zealand and overseas will continue to evolve to address these challenges.

Serious emotional distress

One sticking point in the HDCA is the 'harm' on the victim, which requires the victim to prove they have suffered "serious emotional distress".

The requirement of severe emotional distress was an integral part of the HDCA to create a balance between crime and free speech.

Lawyer Rick Shera says the Bill of Rights Act allows freedom of expression, which includes the freedom to seek, receive, and impart information and opinions of any kind in any form.

"Freedom of speech is never absolute, it is always limited and there is always a balance. The idea is that it is appropriate that people can have robust discussions online, and sometimes, depending on the forum that people are expressing themselves in, those conversations may be more robust than in other forums."

"You'd have to do something pretty outrageous to achieve serious emotional distress," says Shera.

The necessary measures need to distinguish between harmful and non-harmful digital communications, but can cause issues when it comes to revenge porn. Since the HDCA came into law, there was a notable occasion where the judge's subjective view on what constitutes "emotional distress" influenced the case.

A former husband posted pictures of a woman lying in her underwear to Facebook. The court heard she became 'very depressed' but the man was discharged as it did not meet the threshold of serious distress.

"While the evidence clearly points to some degree of emotional distress, it is not sufficient to satisfy me it has reached the threshold of serious emotional distress," Judge Colin Doherty said.

Radio New Zealand reported Judge Doherty saying "morally repugnant or merely upsetting" did not equate to 'serious emotional distress', being merely upset or annoyed as a consequence of a digital communication would not be sufficient to invoke the sanction of criminal law. He said distress that needed medical treatment or counselling was an example of the level of serious emotional distress.

Currently, there is no guideline as to what exactly the level of serious emotional distress should be, but the court may look at language, the age and characteristics of the victim, if it the communication was done anonymously, if it was repeated and the context.

Investigator Daniel Toresen predicts it will take "years of testing" to determine the threshold of emotional distress. "At the moment I feel it is a bit subjective but as time goes on the confines will be sufficiently defined". 

The decision to dismiss the offender was quashed after police launched an appeal. The victim's counsel Peter Marshall said, "The judge's observations about the types of distress the complainant suffered were just that - observations. And the judge described exactly why, in his view, harm could not be established," according to the Law Society.

Lawyer Rick Shera says the evolution of the image from consensual sharing to a breach of trust means the test of emotional distress is able to differentiate between that grey area.

"Then the questions become, who has it been sent to? How many have seen it? What sort of environment? Am I the victim? What sort of impact will it have on me? What evidence can I show of the impact that it has had on me?. It is saying would a reasonable person looking at this think, 'that is seriously emotionally harmful'."

Victims then need to provide evidence they were seriously emotionally distressed, "not that you were just upset".

Netsafe's Martin Crocker says victims must show distress such as: "You couldn't sleep for a period of time, you had to go and see a counsellor, you constantly have this on your mind and you can't get out of it, you can't work properly, you can't eat properly, perhaps you have experienced backlash from friends or acquaintances.

"It's early days but the courts are saying that you can't just turn up to court and say 'hey, I was really upset'."

Which means a person who shared a person's intimate image could plead not guilty and argue the victim was not severely emotionally distressed, instead of solely arguing whether an alleged crime happened or not.

Intimate partner violence

Senior psychology lecturer at the Auckland University of Technology Dr Pani Farvid says revenge porn can be understood as a form of intimate partner violence.

"It's about power. I think it's really serious, there's so much evidence of it absolutely ruining a woman's life. It's a form of technological abuse."

Revenge porn generally impacts females at a higher rate than males, and, (in no way degrading a male victim's experience) the societal consequences tend to fall heavily on female victims.

"Very quickly, a woman's reputation and identity are tarnished as soon as any of those images are made public," says Dr Farvid. "The gender aspect needs to be understood and broadened because it is used as a tool to absolutely humiliate and ruin a woman's life."

However, Dr Farvid says the law is being exercised in a way which has the flexibility when it comes to the complicated issue of revenge porn. She says it is important to not take the rules to an "extreme" level, "because it probably is a grey area and we can't have black and white rules around it".

Women’s Refuge policy advisor Natalie Thorburn says people react to abuse in "a whole variety of ways".

"The difficult thing with emotional abuse is that people don't often show any change on the outside. For the most part [victims] don't take time off work, often because they feel like to do so would be shaming, and it is very difficult to explain why you need time off work for something that isn't tangible like emotional abuse.

"Some of them might have an increase in symptoms like depression or anxiety, some of them might be self-harming or thinking about suicide, but by in large other people aren't going to see the signs around them," Ms Thorburn says.

This calls into question the section of the HDCA which defines 'harm' of the victim as "serious emotional distress".

"This legislation has been really useful because we very rarely saw cases [of revenge porn] go to the court before that." However, the 'emotional distress’ threshold is quite subjective Thorburn says, and "it's those subjective decisions that can be really harmful". 

Ms Thorburn says revenge porn ties into emotional domestic abuse, making the victim feel unworthy, or ashamed, often motivated by a desire to degrade and humiliate the victims.

"Usually that's part of a wider picture of emotional abuse, which is used to cut down somebody's confidence."

Revenge porn can prevent a person coming forward "because it is shaming and humiliating, often making them reluctant to seek help or support".

Women escaping abusive partners are often reluctant to share that they have also been subjected to revenge porn. 

“We find we don’t hear about it until we've been working with women for a while, but we do see that it is more prevalent amongst young women,” Ms Thorburn says.

She says a rise in young women being targeted was worrying "especially as digital harm is so much of an unknown area to us, and for New Zealand generally it is difficult to know how to best respond to.

"I imagine that would be the most humiliating avenue for abuse that the abuser could think of would be to send that to somebody's colleagues, to their workplace or to their families."

Otago University’s Students Against Sexual Violence (SASV) is against victims of revenge porn having to prove an adverse effect on their emotional state.

"We already know in other cases of sexual violence that many victims report secondary victimisation and the enforcement of this threshold for emotional distress is merely an example of this."

The group says any emotional threshold could fail to take into account how different people experience different levels of emotional trauma for even similar incidents. "This is a classic case of shifting the blame from the perpetrator, to the victim. A crime has been committed and the perpetrator must face the consequences of their actions."

Sensible Sentencing Group Trust national victim advocate Leigh Woodman says it would prefer to see the requirement of emotional distress of the victim removed as an ingredient of any offence in the HDCA.

"It defies comprehension to infer that a victim would not experience significant 'emotional distress' when confronted with threats, or the knowledge that photos/information/details of their most intimate sexual details have or could be placed on public digital media for all and sundry to look at.

"We all have differing levels of emotional stress/distress and to have that as a criterion/factor for a successful prosecution under the HDCA is harsh. In these cases, it should be a given that significant 'emotional distress' was inflicted on the victim."

Offender's intentional harm

Dr Nicola Henry says for an intimate image post to be considered a crime in the HDCA, as well as the victim proving severe emotional distress, an offender must have also have the intention to "cause harm to a victim".

"There is a lot of sharing of nude or sexual images where the perpetrator has no intention whatsoever that the victim will discover that they're sharing those images. That's problematic because the behaviour can have an equally damaging impact on the victim regardless of what the original intent of what the perpetrator was."

Taking a case to civil court

But it is not the end of the road for people who have had their intimate images shared without consent. Rick Shera says, "the legislation goes two ways".

If both Netsafe and a prosecution in criminal court are not successful then a person can take out civil proceedings.

"It's you, the plaintiff, taking action against the alleged perpetrator, the defendant, and the standards of proof are different, so it's beyond reasonable doubt in the police environment, or on the balance of probability which is a lower threshold. In both environments the person who is the accused/defendant can most likely argue that, 'no, this is not seriously and emotionally distressful'. Like in a relationship breakdown situation.

"They [the alleged offender] might say he/she gave as good as they got, and the court will take that into account."

Zara

It was only two years after the scandalous Otago Rack Appreciation page ripped through Dunedin. In 2014 a secret Facebook page emerged which contained almost 4,000 males, predominantly from Otago University, who were part of the 'Rack Appreciation Society' where consensually sent intimate images of mainly Otago female students were shared without consent to the group.

Zara (not her real name) was sent a link to a site called 'Dunedin Nudes', which consisted of anonymously posted images of Kiwi women, who hadn't consented to the images being shared. 

Pictures of the women featured on a similar site to 4chan, which is described as "a simple image-based bulletin board where anyone can post comments and share images anonymously". Users, hidden behind the guise of the internet were sharing and even requesting intimate images of Dunedin women.

Zara's full name was posted, along with photos of herself in a bikini, in her underwear and even one she had posted to her own private Instagram site. She says it was much worse for other women. Some of those people Zara knew.

"Full-on nudity was shown. They were obviously intended for boyfriends or private use, as many of them were captioned 'don’t screenshot this'. Many of the girls were under the age of 16."

Scrolling through the countless images of other women who live in the city of Dunedin horrified Zara, so too did the distribution of her own images for use in a pornographic way.

"There were comments on my pictures saying things along the lines of 'I had a great wank to this, cheers'."

"I felt so violated and disgusted." There were comments asking for, ‘More pictures of Zara*’, with the reply, "haven't got any yet but I’ll keep an eye out". 

"I felt so scared reading that. This person clearly knew me.

"Every time people looked at me I felt dirty and couldn’t focus on my job. I even broke down at university one day just because everywhere I went all I could think was ‘who posted these pictures with the intent to humiliate and degrade me?'

"It made me have panic attacks for weeks. I would cry myself to sleep knowing that to some people, all I was, was an object for them to please themselves over. Even to this day, I am scared and cautious of who to trust with anything. I still don't know who shared them, the site was deleted before the police could trace it."

At the police station, Zara had to explain to the officer how Instagram and Snapchat worked. When she brought up the pictures on the site of under-age girls and of those with captions requesting the images were kept private, she said the officer told her "there's not much we can do". 

Zara said her images were used to humiliate her, and violate her privacy. “Someone I knew posted those pictures, and now I can barely trust my friends, let alone a stranger."


Emerging technology

Cyber security expert John Parsons does not believe that technology and emerging technology is the issue.

"The problem is the person who makes a conscious decision to harm another person and a person who allows the image to be taken. The technology is simply a vehicle to deliver that harm."

He discusses workshops in his 2017 book: Keeping your children safe online, where he talks to young people about why a person might send a sexual image of themselves to another person.

Some seem to reflect the ability of human beings to adapt to a changing world. Some students believe it is a modern form of flirting. . . Others have suggested it allows partners to demonstrate how much they love and trust each other. Others see it as a form of currency, having to send the images to maintain a relationship."

"As with all evolving and emerging technologies, society has to learn to adapt to the unforeseen and when new ways of harming people develop society responds and the HDCA is an example of that. One thing that we should also remember is that aside from having a legal tool to support a victim of crime there is significant benefit in having it recognized as a crime."

The next step with revenge porn

Dr Nicola Henry says in Australia they have argued for a specific criminal offence for revenge porn, and the same could be done in New Zealand. "Given the fact that most of the convictions in New Zealand since the legislation was passed... do actually involve the image based abuse behaviours. I think that is quite telling."

She says the law responded with the HDCA to the growing problem of digital abuse, but as time went on there have been rapid shifts and changes. "The law is an imperfect, blunt instrument because it is very reactive. It can become outdated very rapidly, particularly with the changing nature of digital technology. That's why it's important to keep talking about it, and to do further investigations around whether or not we need to make further changes to the law."

She says even looking into the term 'revenge porn' could be beneficial to victims. "It implies the motivation is exclusively that of revenge, it doesn't capture a range of motivations or experiences, where someone is blackmailing another person, also where there is sexual gratification in sharing of images… or boasting."

Minister of Justice Andrew Little told 1 NEWS he has faith in the courts to protect victims, but a review of the HDCA is likely in the future. 

"[Revenge porn] can break a person, others can be stoic about it, but certainly a criminal complaint tells you that they don't like what has happened to them and they feel harmed by what has happened. I think the courts ought to be setting a low threshold for that proof of harm having been done. How do you demonstrate how upset and shamed you are when an intimate image of you goes on social media?"

When asked if moving revenge porn to the Domestic Violence Act could remedy issues such as proving severe emotional harm, Mr Little says he has not considered that currently.

"The HDCA is reasonably new… you let these things run for a few years and then you review them to see whether the objective intended is being achieved. At some point it will be suitable to review it but in the meantime let's see how the courts manage it and apply it."

Netsafe's Martin Cocker says it is "important that people understand the options available to them if intimate content of them has been shared without their consent".

"It's equally important that people understand that they may be prosecuted if they share intimate images of others without consent."

Investigator Julia Hartley Moore says it starts at the top of the cliff. "Not taking photos of yourself in compromising situations for starters: it's as simple and unlikely as that, but these days that's just as unlikely as people giving up smart phones and social media."

"The genie is well and truly out of the bottle and it's got a potty mouth!"

Otago Students Against Sexual Violence believe education and restorative justice could help curb numbers of revenge porn offenders and victims.

“Secondary school education, for example, talks at length about the risk of pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, but it fails to openly discuss consent properly which we believe contributes to rape mythology and a culture that allows this type of behaviour to continue," they said. 

In terms of transformative and restorative justice, they think "we need to ensure that the conversation sticks to the offenders". 

Cyber security expert John Parsons says decreasing the likelihood of revenge porn falls into prevention and response. Education for primary aged children, both in the home and school based around identity and consent.

"Presently we see… revenge porn as a technological issue and in my opinion, it's a lack of understanding about the value of identity and the possible outcomes when we lose control of it.

"This education needs to be based on the person's age and level of maturity. It also requires parents modelling the right behaviour. Consent is one of the main points around which the HDCA works in relation to revenge porn."

Even as parents simple acts like asking the child prior to taking a photo and informing them how it will be distributed could contribute to children learning about control of who takes pictures of them when they’re older, says Mr Parsons. 

"I think this generation who are being impacted by revenge porn once they have children will impart to them appropriate knowledge, this will significantly reduce the number of victims in the future."

The HDCA has been a vital building block in holding perpetrators to account and providing victims with justice. However, the HDCA needs to continue evolving. The 2014 Otago Rack Appreciation incident showed the widespread magnitude of revenge porn.

The introduction a year later of the HDCA made many assume it would combat such reprehensible actions, but it most likely would not. The perpetrators could argue there was no harm intended as it was a private group, and a subjective view of severe emotional distress puts a question mark beside whether or not the victim was severely harmed. 

What to do if you're affected

1. Screenshot the content if possible
2. Report the content to the platform that it’s on (e.g. Facebook, Twitter, YouTube etc.)
3. Report the profile/account of the person who shared the content
4. Contact Netsafe to report the incident and discuss your options

Where to go if you need help

Lifeline 24/7 - 0800 543 354
Kidsline (aimed at children up to 18 years of age, available 24/7) – 0800 54 37 54
Depression Helpline 24/7 - 0800 111 757
Healthline - 0800 611 116
Samaritans - 0800 726 666 (for callers from the Lower North Island, Christchurch and West Coast) or 0800 211 211 / (04) 473 9739 (for callers from all other regions)
Youthline - 0800 376 633, free text 234 or email talk@youthline.co.nz
What's Up (for 5-18 year olds; 1 pm to 11 pm) - 0800 942 8787
www.depression.org.nz - includes The Journal online help service
www.thelowdown.co.nz - visit the website, email team@thelowdown.co.nz or free text 5626 (emails and text messages will be responded to between 12 noon and 12 midnight).


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