A - Z of TV advertising


Audience: A target audience (also known as a target market) represents the people you most want to talk to

Audience Skew: Describes a situation where a specific group is exposed to a given medium more than other groups (or the overall population). For example: News can attract a slightly older viewer. Its audience is therefore skewed towards the older age groups.

Average Audience: Calculated by adding together the audience for each individual minute of programme and dividing it by the programme’s total duration.

Average Frequency: Estimate of the average number of times the audience had an opportunity to see a commercial.


Branded Content: Branded content is the place where advertising and entertainment collide to create true consumer engagement. By using different platforms and devices you can interact with consumers on their terms, when, where and how they want to.

Bumpers: Short branded sponsorship credits shown either side of a programme; coming in and out of the commercial break.


Channel share: This is the share one channel has of all viewing for a particular time period. The share, expressed as a percentage, is calculated by dividing the channel’s average audience by the average audience of all channels (PUTs)

Commercial break: A break during a programme or between programmes, during which advertisements are shown.


Demographics: Basic descriptors used to classify audiences, such as age, sex, occupation, household income etc.

DTR: Stands for - Digital Television Recorder - a device that records digital video content and stores it on its hard-drive.


EPG: Stands for - Electronic Programme Guide – which is channel listings via an on-screen guide.

Effective Frequency: Is defined as the minimum number of times a communication must be exposed to a viewer/potential consumer to positively impact on that consumers buyer / purchasing behavior.


FIB: First in Break – the first commercial to appear in a commercial break.

Free-to-Air: TV channels offered free to users, subscription free.

Freeview: Freeview comprises a group of free to air broadcasters (MediaWorks, Maori Television Service, TVNZ and Radio New Zealand) who have worked as a not-for-profit co-operative to create a digital platform on which their channels can be broadcast.

Frequency: Average number of times target audience is able to see an advertisement over an expressed period of time.


HD (High Definition): High Definition provides best quality broadcast and better picture resolution.

Hours of Viewing: The average number of minutes or hours viewed per day or per week to a channel by an audience.

Household: A group of people who live together. And with combined salaries.

Hours/Minutes of Viewing: The amount of television watched by a particular audience category in an expressed given period. 


In-Home Viewing: TV viewing that takes place in the home only.

Infomercial: An extended commercial message which can also include product demonstration.


Live Viewing: Viewing of a programme or commercial at the actual time of transmission. It excludes any time-shifted viewing e.g. TV One Plus, TV2+1and TVNZ On-Demand.


Off-Peak: To calculate the off-peak percentage, take the percentage of TARPs appearing outside of the peak hours of 6pm -10.30pm.

Overnights: Term used to describe viewing data made available the following day. Comprised only of ‘live’ viewing.


PUTs – People Using Television - is the proportion of people viewing any TV channel at any point in time.



Television ratings (TV ratings or TVRs) are expressed as a percentage of the potential TV audience viewing at any given time.

If an advertising spot achieves 1 TVR this means that 1% of the relevant target audience watched the spot being transmitted.

Reach - The number (%) of different people exposed to a particular media vehicle or message at least once.

Reach & Frequency

R&F’s are always looked at hand in hand, one measures the number of people exposed (unduplicated), and the other the number of exposures.


TARPs – Target Audience Rating Points are also known as ratings and are an estimate of the size of a specific viewing audience to a channel, programme or time zone. 1 TARP is the equivalent of reaching 1% of the target audience.  Time spent viewing (TSV) - How many minutes/hours an audience has viewed a particular channel. There are two calculations that can be used that provide significantly different figures. The measurement in dataline provides the TSV a programme for the average person within the demographic, regardless of being a viewer or not. This calculation is made with ave. aud. and potential. The second calculation provides the TSV for actual viewers and is made using ave aud and cumulative audience.

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